The brand new Kangbuk Samsung Health Analysis is good cohort examination of Korean men, old ?18 decades, whom undergone an intensive annual or biennial wellness examination in the Kangbuk Samsung Healthcare Complete Medical care Centers from inside the Seoul and you will Suwon, Southern area Korea. twelve Extremely examinees (>80%) are team of several businesses and regional governmental organizations as well as their partners. For the Southern area Korea, the newest Industrial Safety and health Laws demands yearly otherwise biennial health examination examinations of the many teams, cost-free.
Our very own data is limited by Kangbuk Samsung Health Analysis users whom underwent an intensive fitness test away from , and you will offered advised consent to own linkage toward Health insurance Remark and you will Research Services database (n=263 532; Profile step one). Inside the Korea, healthcare is actually planned lower than a mandatory unmarried?payer nationwide insurance coverage program (National Medical health insurance) you to accumulates the information about scientific attributes explore covering the entire Korean society lower than an intensive database run by Medical health insurance the adult hub giriÅŸ Opinion and you may Investigations Service. thirteen
We excluded participants with missing data on BP or history of hypertension (n=1018), with history of malignancy (n=6255), with history of CVD (n=3440), or with a diagnosis of CVD (n=10 471) at baseline. Because some participants met >1 exclusion criterion, the final sample size included in the analysis was 244 837 participants (mean [SD] age, 39.0 [8.9] years; interquartile range, 32.2–43.7 years; and young adults aged <40 years of 60.7 %).
Written informed concur are obtained from most of the players. The study is actually approved by the Institutional Review Panel regarding Kangbuk Samsung Health.
Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, medical history, and family history of CVD were collected by standardized, self?administered questionnaires. 14 Smoking status was categorized as never, former, and current smoker. Alcohol intake was categorized as <20 and ?20 g/d, as applied in previous studies. 12 , 15 Education level was categorized as less than college and college education or more. Physical activity was assessed using the validated Korean version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form. 16 Participants were classified as inactive, minimally active, and health?enhancing physically active. Health?enhancing physically active was defined as physical activity that meets either of 2 criteria: (1) vigorous?intensity activity on ?3 days per week, accumulating ?1500 metabolic equivalent min/wk; or (2) 7 days of any combination of walking, moderate?intensity activities, or vigorous?intensity activities achieving at least 3000 metabolic equivalent min/wk. 16 Usual dietary intake was assessed using a 103?item, self?administered food frequency questionnaire designed and validated for use in Korea. 17 Daily intake of sodium was calculated by multiplying the frequency of consumption of each food by the portion size and sodium content of each food and summing across all relevant food items. 18 , 19
Height and weight were measured by trained nurses. Body mass index was calculated as weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters squared). BP was measured using an automated oscillometric device (53000; Welch Allyn, New York, NY) by trained nurses while participants were in a sitting position, with the arm supported at the heart level after a 5?minute rest. We recoded 3 consecutive BP readings and used the average of the second and third readings in the analysis. BP levels were categorized according to the 2017 ACC/AHA hypertension guideline. 11 Participants without a history of hypertension were categorized as normal BP (< mm Hg), elevated BP (120–129/<80 mm Hg), stage 1 hypertension (130––89 mm Hg), and stage 2 hypertension (? mm Hg). Participants with a history of hypertension were categorized as treated and strictly controlled hypertension (< mm Hg on antihypertensive medication use), treated and controlled hypertension (130––89 mm Hg on antihypertensive medication use), treated but uncontrolled hypertension (? mm Hg on antihypertensive medication use), and untreated hypertension (not using antihypertensive medications).